HowTo: Generate Certificate for OpenLDAP and using it for certificate authentication.

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LDAPS Server Certificate Requirements

LDAPS requires a properly formatted X.509 certificate. This certificate lets a OpenLDAP service listen for and automatically accept SSL connections. The server certificate is used for authenticating the OpenLDAP server to the client during the LDAPS setup and for enabling the SSL communication tunnel between the client and the server. As an option, we can also use LDAPS for client authentication.

Having spent quite some time to make a TLS work, I thought this may be usefull to some :

Creating Self CA certificate:

1, Create the  ldapclient-key.pem private key :

openssl genrsa -des3 -out ldapclient-key.pem 1024

2, Create the ldapserver-cacerts.pem certificate :

openssl req -new -key ldapclient-key.pem -x509 -days 1095 -out ldapserver-cacerts.pem

Creating a certificate for server:

1, Create the ldapserver-key.pem private key

openssl genrsa -out ldapserver-key.pem

2, Create a server.csr certificate request:

openssl req -new -key ldapserver-key.pem -out server.csr

3, Create the ldapserver-cert.pem certificate signed by your own CA :

openssl x509 -req -days 2000 -in server.csr -CA ldapserver-cacerts.pem -CAkey ldapclient-key.pem -CAcreateserial -out ldapserver-cert.pem

4, Create CA copy for the client:

cp -rpf ldapserver-cacerts.pem   ldapclient-cacerts.pem

Now configure the certificates in slapd.conf, the correct files must be copied on each server:

TLSCACertificateFile /etc/openldap/certs/ldapserver-cacerts.pem
TLSCertificateFile /etc/openldap/certs/ldapserver-cert.pem
TLSCertificateKeyFile /etc/openldap/certs/ldapserver-key.pem

# personnally, I only check servers from client.
# If you do, add this :
TLSVerifyClient never

Configure certificate for ldap clients

Key : ldapclient-key.pem
Crt : ldapclient-cert.pem

HowTo: Extend the volume in windows

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It will be possible to resize the system partion with tools that are either commercially available or opensource. Acronis ‘Disk Partition Manager’ is a good example of a commerical product (, Thier is another tool that comes with Linux ‘Live CD’ called “GParted”. This will also resize partions without data loss. To extend a volume, follow these steps,

Run –> cmd –> type diskpart.exe.

Type list volume to display the existing volumes on the computer.

Type Select volume volume number where volume number is number of the volume that you want to extend.

Type extend [size=n] [disk=n] [noerr]. The following describes the parameters: size=n The space, in megabytes (MB), to add to the current partition. If you do not specify a size, the disk is extended to use all the next contiguous unallocated space. disk=n

The dynamic disk on which to extend the volume. Space equal to size=n is allocated on the disk. If no disk is specified, the volume is extended on the current disk.

HowTo: Change Instance store AMI to EBS-backend AMI

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Amazon not providing any feature for changing AMI root device type, once we generate an instance with Instance-store  we can’t upgrade the instance because for upgrading instance should stop. The stop option is disable for such instance-store AMI’s. I followed the steps below, It can be workout by two ways either using rsync or dd

Here is the steps:

  • Create an EBS vol with size as same or more, I used 10G because my existing instance having 10G on root.


After creating which is look like this


  • Attach the EBSLogin to existing Instance-store backend AMI,

Right- click and select Attach Volume,


  • Login to the Instance-store backend  server, and stop all the running services (Optional), (eg., mysqld , httpd , xinted )

Execute the the disk mirroring commands below, it will take few min to complete according to the server perfomance.

[root@ip-10-128-5-222 ~]# dd bs=65536 if=/dev/sda1 of=/dev/sdf


mkfs.ext3 /dev/sdf                              #create filesystem
mkdir /mnt/ebs                                  #New dir for mounting 
mount /dev/sdh /mnt/ebs                         #Mount as a partition
rsync -avHx / /mnt/ebs                          #Synchronizing root and ebs  
rsync -avHx /dev /mnt/ebs                       #Synchronizing device informations  
tune2fs -L '/' /dev/sdf                         #Creating partition label for ebs  
sync;sync;sync;sync && umount /mnt/ebs          #Sync and umounting ebs 

Check the EBS volume for consistency

[root@ip-10-128-5-222 ~]# fsck /dev/sdf
 fsck 1.39 (29-May-2006)
 e2fsck 1.39 (29-May-2006)
 /dev/sdf: clean, 126372/1310720 files, 721346/2621440 blocks

Mount the EBS volume into the instance, Remove the /mnt entry from the fstab on your EBS vol

[root@ip-10-128-5-222 ~]# mount /dev/sdf /mnt/ebs-vol
[root@ip-10-128-5-222 ~]# vim /root/ebs-vol/etc/fstab
  • Create a snapshot of the EBS volume using the AWS management console

Right-Click the EBS_vol –> select Create Snapshot , it will take few min to create


After creating snapshot it will list under snapshot list.


Now Right-click snapshot  –> select Create Image from snapshot


  • Launch new EC2 using newly create AMI, so while creating new EC2 you can select any instance type also you may use the same keypair and Elastic IP for the new instance

Creating New instance using new AMI.


Running instance


  • Now you can login to the new server, If you select more than the size of snapshot you have to use the below command to retain the storage back
#resize2fs /dev/sda1
  •  Successfully migrated the server as EBS-backend. Start all the services if it is necessary, This time we can upgrade the instance type

HowTo: S3 bucket dynamic URI access

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s3cmd is a command line tool for uploading, retrieving and managing data in Amazon S3. Still their are no wiki is updated.
you may get the packages from sourceforge official

Also the download repository is available here : Download Now

It will also support including unix dynamic resource access method, for example we can use * for calling all the resources or {dir1,file2} for specific resource.

I was shown in the example for setting up public acl for dynamic sub directories.


root@planetcure:tar -zxvf s3cmd-1.0.1.tar.gz
root@planetcure:export  PATH=$PATH:/opt/installer/s3cmd-1.0.1

Now we can access the binary from any of the location.

root@planetcure:/opt/installer/s3cmd-1.0.1# s3cmd setacl --acl-public s3://my-bucket-name/{dev,stg1,stg2}/*/dir5/*/3/*

This command will execute the following scenarios

s3://my-bucket-name/  is my S3 bucket

* will represent all the subdirectories

{dev,stg1,stg2} will represent the specific directories from the group of directories

dir5/ ,3/ will represent specific sub-directory

Enjoy the day, 🙂

HowTo: Set Up Multiple SSL Certificates on One IP with Apache

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As the Apache Web server grows and matures, new features are added and old bugs are fixed. Perhaps one of the most important new features added to recent Apache versions (2.2.12, to be specific) is the long-awaited support for multiple SSL sites on a single IP address.


  • The server, obviously, must use Apache 2.2.12 or higher.
  • It must also use OpenSSL 0.9.8f or later and must be built with the TLS extensions option.
  •  Apache must be built against this version of OpenSSL as it will enable SNI support if it detects the right version of OpenSSL — the version of OpenSSL that includes TLS extension support.( Default installation contains all these things)


SNI can only be used for serving multiple SSL sites from your web server and is not likely to work at all on other daemons, such as mail servers, etc. There are also a small percentage of older web browsers that may still give certificate errors. Wikipedia has an updated list of software that does and does not support this TLS extension.

Here am using wild card SSL for hosting two sub-domain in single server, similearly we can also use different ssl for different domain with the same IP.

Follow the basic installation of apache

Redhat :

[root@ip-10-132-82-251 ~]# yum install httpd openssl openssl-devel mod_ssl


apt-get install apache2 openssl mod_ssl

Get the the certificate from the authority or use self singed SSL, Verify you have enabled SSL module in the existing apache installation

[root@ip-10-132-82-251 ~]# httpd -M  |grep ssl

Add the following lines in the apace main configuration file httpd.conf

[root@ip-10-132-82-251 ~]#  vi /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf 
NameVirtualHost *:443
<IfModule mod_ssl.c>
    # If you add NameVirtualHost *:443 here, you will also have to change
    # the VirtualHost statement in /etc/apache2/sites-available/default-ssl
    # to
    # Server Name Indication for SSL named virtual hosts is currently not
    # supported by MSIE on Windows XP.
    Listen 443
<IfModule mod_gnutls.c>
    Listen 443

Create the Virtual Hosts

Once you downloaded all required files for SSL, proceed to creating Vhost.

Here is the Vhost entry that I used

[root@ip-10-132-82-251 ~]# vi /etc/httpd/conf.d/domain1-ssl.conf
<IfModule mod_ssl.c>
<VirtualHost *:443>
        DocumentRoot "/opt/web-home/domain1/public_html"
        <Directory />
                Options FollowSymLinks
                AllowOverride all
        <Directory /opt/web-home/domain1/public_html>
                Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews
                AllowOverride all
                Order allow,deny
                allow from all
        ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /opt/web-home/domain1/public_html/cgi-bin/
        <Directory "/opt/web-home/domain1/public_html/cgi-bin/">
                AllowOverride None
                Options +ExecCGI -MultiViews +SymLinksIfOwnerMatch
                Order allow,deny
                Allow from all
ErrorLog logs/ssl_error_log
TransferLog logs/ssl_access_log
LogLevel warn
SSLEngine on
SSLProtocol all -SSLv2
SSLCertificateFile /etc/ssl/certs/
SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/ssl/certs/
SSLCertificateChainFile /etc/ssl/certs/
SSLCACertificateFile /etc/ssl/certs/
SetEnvIf User-Agent ".*MSIE.*" \
         nokeepalive ssl-unclean-shutdown \
         downgrade-1.0 force-response-1.0
CustomLog logs/ssl_request_log \
          "%t %h %{SSL_PROTOCOL}x %{SSL_CIPHER}x \"%r\" %b"

SSLPassPhraseDialog  builtin
SSLSessionCache         shmcb:/var/cache/mod_ssl/scache(512000)
SSLSessionCacheTimeout  300
SSLMutex default
SSLRandomSeed startup file:/dev/urandom  256
SSLRandomSeed connect builtin
SSLCryptoDevice builtin

You can also create more Vhost files using this entry. By changing the domain name and the SSL path.

Now restart the apache

[root@ip-10-132-82-251 ~]# service httpd restart

To verify the list of enabled vhost, use the below command

[root@ip-10-132-82-251 ~]# apachectl -S
VirtualHost configuration:
wildcard NameVirtualHosts and _default_ servers:
*:443                  is a NameVirtualHost
         default server (/etc/httpd/conf.d/domain1-ssl.conf:2)
         port 443 namevhost (/etc/httpd/conf.d/domain1-ssl.conf:2)
         port 443 namevhost (/etc/httpd/conf.d/domain2-ssl.conf:2)
Syntax OK

Phew, these domains having their own SSL with single IP 🙂

Script: https traffic block

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This script is for blocking https traffic in the software router it self, I am using squid and it is not capable for  handling HTTPS traffics, because 1 , the url is encrypted. 2, The routing table is only for handing traffic over port 80.

This script have two input file, it will create automatically when the first run. It having capability for private-IP based restriction

Editable area in the script :

DIST=            #IP where the request has to forward
DPORT=81                    #Port where the request has to forward
BLOCKPORTS=443              #Outgoing + incomming Port 
RULE=forward                #Possible options reject,drop,forward

If you have any web-page for giving a message to the user regarding the block, set it here

Enter the domain and local IP separately in the file, examples are shown below Download here

[anand@planetcure ~]$ sh --help
This script is for block https outbound traffic using source based requests
 -s or --silent Silent execution
 ssl_domains  File for enter SSL domain names
 ip_users     File for enter localip list

You must have to enable forwarding and execute it from root.

First run :

[root@planetcure]# sh 
Parent dir not found, Creating entire structure 
|-- ip_users
`-- ssl_domains

0 directories, 2 files
[INFO]:We found empty input file. exiting..

Input Files :

[root@planetcure]# ls /opt/installer/scripts/
ip_users  ssl_domains

File input one by one :

[root@planetcure scripts]# cat ip_users
[root@planetcure scripts]# cat ssl_domains


[root@planetcure]# sh 
Validating file structure
checking ssl_domains Ok.
checking ip_users Ok.
|-- ip_users
`-- ssl_domains

0 directories, 2 files

 Executing source Ip blocked for the domain blocked for the domain blocked for the domain blocked for the domain blocked for the domain blocked for the domain blocked for the domain blocked for the domain

 Executing source Ip blocked for the domain blocked for the domain blocked for the domain blocked for the domain blocked for the domain blocked for the domain blocked for the domain blocked for the domain

Now set this as crone like below

*/05 * * * * /bin/sh /root/ -s

If you run again the script it will show the current status of the blocked domain

[root@localhost bash]# sh 
Validating file structure
checking ssl_domains Ok.
checking ip_users Ok.
|-- ip_users
`-- ssl_domains

0 directories, 2 files

 Executing source Ip      DNAT       tcp  --       tcp dpt:443 tcp dpt:443 to:      DNAT       tcp  --        tcp dpt:443 tcp dpt:443 to:      DNAT       tcp  --        tcp dpt:443 tcp dpt:443 to:      DNAT       tcp  --        tcp dpt:443 tcp dpt:443 to:      DNAT       tcp  --       tcp dpt:443 tcp dpt:443 to:      DNAT       tcp  --       tcp dpt:443 tcp dpt:443 to:      DNAT       tcp  --      tcp dpt:443 tcp dpt:443 to: blocked for the domain

 Executing source Ip      DNAT       tcp  --       tcp dpt:443 tcp dpt:443 to:      DNAT       tcp  --       tcp dpt:443 tcp dpt:443 to:      DNAT       tcp  --        tcp dpt:443 tcp dpt:443 to:      DNAT       tcp  --        tcp dpt:443 tcp dpt:443 to:      DNAT       tcp  --        tcp dpt:443 tcp dpt:443 to:      DNAT       tcp  --       tcp dpt:443 tcp dpt:443 to:      DNAT       tcp  --      tcp dpt:443 tcp dpt:443 to: blocked for the domain

Now you have control in the network traffic usage.

Info: Configure Redmine on cpanel hosting account with sending and receiving emails.

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Wiki :

Redmine is a free and open source, web-based project management and bug-tracking tool. It includes a calendar and Gantt charts to aid visual representation of projects and their deadlines. It handles multiple projects. Redmine provides integrated project management features, issue tracking, and support for various version control systems.
The design of Redmine is significantly influenced by Trac, a software package with some similar features.
Redmine is written using the Ruby on Rails framework. It is cross-platform and cross-database. It is part of the Bitnami app library that provides an installer and virtual machine for ease of deployment.

Before starting installation you have to make sure that Ruby on rails is working fine in your environment, If not you can follow the installation document for more help.

Installaing Ruby on Rails with Cpanel :

Once you have done, then start the redmine installation steps.

Login to the terminal using primary account logins.


  1. Create rails_app folder and redmine folder within it then go inside that folder
    # mkdir -p ~/rails_apps/redmine/
    # cd ~/rails_apps/redmine/
  2.  Download redmine redmine-2.3.3 or latest stable version, extract it and move the content out of it, then delete the files not being used.
    1. # wget
      # tar -zxvf redmine-2.3.3.tar.gz
      # mv redmine-2.3.3/* ./
      # rm -rf redmine-2.3.3/
  3. Move example files where they can be used
    # cd config
    # mv database.yml.example database.yml
    # mv configuration.yml.example configuration.yml
  4. Creating the MySQL Database/User/Password
    Login to Cpanel account, Create a database , user and grant full privilege to the new user for the particular database.
  5. Modifying your database.yml file.
    # vi database.yml
    adapter: mysql
    database: redmine
    host: localhost
    username: myaccount_databaseuser
    password: newpassowd
    encoding: utf8
  6. Updating the ~/rails_apps/redmine/public/.htaccess file
    # cd ../public/
    # pwd
    1. You should see something similar to this.


        Add these lines
    Options -MultiViews
    PassengerResolveSymlinksInDocumentRoot on
    #Set this to whatever environment you'll be running in
    RailsEnv production
    RackBaseURI /
    SetEnv GEM_HOME /home/myaccountuser/rails_apps/redmine/public
    # set to resolve avoid rails control to the folder for image resolution   
    RewriteEngine On
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} ^/images.*
    RewriteRule .* - [L]
  7. Create a subdomain eg:
    Follow cpanel procedure to create subdomain. Subdomains
  8. Remove projects folder inside public_html and create symbolic link.
    # rm -rf ~/public_html/projects
        Creating the symlink
    # ln -s ~/rails_app/redmine/public ~/public_html/projects
  9. Updating Environment variables in ~/.bashrc file
        Add these lines to the bottom of your ~/.bashrc file
               export HPATH=$HOME
               export GEM_HOME=$HPATH/ruby/gems
               export GEM_PATH=$GEM_HOME:/lib64/ruby/gems/1.9.3
               export GEM_CACHE=$GEM_HOME/cache
               export PATH=$PATH:$HPATH/ruby/gems/bin
               export PATH=$PATH:$HPATH/ruby/gems
        after which source your .bashrc file
            # source ~/.bashrc
        You will then need to check your rails version
            rails -v && rake --version && gem -v
          You should get this message


    Rails 4.0.1
    rake, version
  10. Running bundle install
    # cd ~/rails_apps/redmine/
    # bundle install
    # rake generate_session_store
  11. Running generate_session_store or generate_secret_token
    1. # rake generate_session_store
        If you get an error saying that command is deprecated, run this command instead;
     # rake generate_secret_token
  12. Start the site session
    # rake db:migrate RAILS_ENV=production
  13. Configuring outgoing emailsUpdate the setting in configuration.yml
     delivery_method: :smtp
     address: localhost
     port: 25
     authentication: :none
    enable_starttls_auto: false

    Now the redmine have capable to send emails using exim install in the cpanel server.

  14. Configuring Incomming emails for IMAPCreate a cron job for the script to get continuous email feaching

    For the first this script must execute from the terminal, so it will display error if any.

    /usr/bin/rake -f /home1/innovat4/rails_apps/redmine/Rakefile --silent redmine:email:receive_imap RAILS_ENV="production" port=143 password=myemailpassword

    For more help follow the official link

Note : Each configuration required rails environment reboot for that you can follow the simple way.

# touch ~/rails_app/redmine/tmp/reboot.txt